1114 books for genre «Books ~~ Philosophy~~ Ethics & Moral Philosophy»

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The Republic is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC concerning the definition of justice and the order and character of the just city-­state and the just man. The dramatic date of the dialogue has been much debated and though it must take place some time during the Peloponnesian War,­"there would be jarring anachronisms if any of the candidate specific dates between 432 and 404 were assigned". It is Plato’s best-­known work and has proven to be one of the most intellectually and historically influential works of philosophy and political theory.

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An essay on the philosophical principle of Utility; that the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals. Mill's suggestion was that pleasures differ in kind; that some pleasures are more valuable than others.

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One of the most salient features of our culture is that there is so much bullshit. Everyone knows this. Each of us contributes his share. But we tend to take the situation for granted. Most people are rather confident of their ability to recognize bullshit and to avoid being taken in by it. So the phenomenon has not aroused much deliberate concern. We have no clear understanding of what bullshit is, why there is so much of it, or what functions it serves. And we lack a conscientiously developed appreciation of what it means to us. In other words, as Harry Frankfurt writes, "we have no theory.­" Frankfurt, one of the world's most influential moral philosophers, attempts to build such a theory here. With his characteristic combination of philosophical acuity, psychological insight, and wry humor, Frankfurt proceeds by exploring how bullshit and the related concept of humbug are distinct from lying. He argues that bullshitters misrepresent themselves to their audience not as liars . . .

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Appealing to reason rather than religious belief, this book is the most comprehensive case against the choice of abortion yet published. The Ethics of Abortion critically evaluates all the major grounds for denying fetal personhood, including the views of those who defend not only abortion but also infanticide. It also provides several (non-­theological) justifications for the conclusion that all human beings, including those in utero, should be respected as persons. This book also critiques the view that abortion is not wrong even if the human fetus is a person. The Ethics of Abortion examines hard cases for those who are prolife, such as abortion in cases of rape or in order to save the mother's life, as well as hard cases for defenders of abortion, such as sex selection abortion and the rationale for being "personally opposed" but publically supportive of abortion. It concludes with a discussion of whether artificial wombs might end the abortion debate. Answering the arguments . . .

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Il Convivio (1304-­1307), dal latino convivium, ovvero "banchetto" (di sapienza), è la prima delle opere di Dante scritta subito dopo il forzato allontanamento di Firenze. È un prosimetro che si presenta come un'enciclopedia dei saperi più importan...

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Thoreau wrote his famous essay, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, as a protest against an unjust but popular war and the immoral but popular institution of slave-­owning. He did more than write-­he declined to pay his taxes, and was hauled off to gaol in consequence. Who can say how much this refusal of his hastened the end of the war and of slavery ? At the present day, intellectual detachment from the State, and individual defiance of its behests when these are opposed to conscience, are more difficult, and apparently more futile, than in Thoreau's time. The unit seems of less im­portance in the mass. It is all the more impera­tive, therefore, that the facts that the mass is composed of units and the conscience of the mass is the aggregate conscience of the units, and that the individual is still the sole responsible guardian of his own conscience and the co-­guardian of the public conscience, should be fully recognized.

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As it was in and so it is in life. Most forms of private vice and public evil are kindled and sustained by lies. Acts of adultery and other personal betrayals, financial fraud, government corruption-­even murder and genocide-­generally require an additional moral defect: a willingness to lie. In, best-­selling author and neuroscientist Sam Harris argues that we can radically simplify our lives and improve society by merely telling the truth in situations where others often lie. He focuses on "white" lies-­those lies we tell for the purpose of sparing people discomfort-­for these are the lies that most often tempt us. And they tend to be the only lies that good people tell while imagining that they are being good in the process.

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For thirty years, Peter Singer's Practical Ethics has been the classic introduction to applied ethics. For this third edition, the author has revised and updated all the chapters and added a new chapter addressing climate change, one of the most important ethical challenges of our generation. Some of the questions discussed in this book concern our daily lives. Is it ethical to buy luxuries when others do not have enough to eat? Should we buy meat from intensively reared animals? Am I doing something wrong if my carbon footprint is above the global average? Other questions confront us as concerned citizens: equality and discrimination on the grounds of race or sex; abortion, the use of embryos for research and euthanasia; political violence and terrorism; and the preservation of our planet's environment. This book's lucid style and provocative arguments make it an ideal text for university courses and for anyone willing to think about how she or he ought to live.

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According to Wikipedia: "Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 12 February 1804) was an 18th-­century German philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe and of the late Enlightenment. Kant created a new widespread perspective in philosophy which is influencing enlightened philosophy until the 21st Century. He published important works of epistemology as also scripts in coherence to religion, law and history. His most important work is the Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation into the limitations and structure of reason itself. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics and epistemology, and highlights Kant's own contribution to these areas. The other main works of his maturity are the Critique of Practical Reason, which concentrates on ethics, and the Critique of Judgment, which investigates aesthetics and teleology.­"

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Nietzsche proposes in "Beyond Good and Evil" a system of inquiry and analysis known by the phrase 'history as critique.­' This straightforward manner of investigation leads Nietzsche to question all of culture's most venerated conventions: science, religion, politics, decency and linguistic stock. He begins this process by overriding tradition when he says "only that which has no history can be defined.­" An explanation of virtue, for example, can only be written when the defintion eludes all possible requisites of custom and habit. We cannot properly administer the philosophical aspects of morality except through divine direction, suspicion, or an unexamined dependence on tradition. Because of this, Nietzsche calls to question the foundational premise that it is best for human beings to seek the truth. How do we know that mendacity isn't better? What is truth, anyway? He disputes the intention of the traditional esoteric venture. He unburdens all sources of cultural . . .

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Books for genre Books ~~ Philosophy~~ Ethics & Moral...